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(現代沖縄史) A History of Contemporary Okinawa (Approx. 1966-2002) - by John Michael Purves

Basically Chapter 3 of my 2002 doctoral dissertation. As I described with Chapter 2 in the Postwar Section, I tried to combine a discussion of the socio-economic development of Okinawa in the broad with Kin Village (later a town) in the narrow. Rather than follow the standard use of 'contemporary' to relate to post-reversion (post 15th May 1972) developments in Okinawa I am starting this account with a description of the process of planning for Okinawa's reversion. Since this dissertation was submitted in 2002 it does not cover developments in Okinawa thereafter. I will upgrade this at some point but my priorities at present are on the Ancient Ryukyu and Early Modern- Modern Ryukyu sections. Part 13, 'Conclusion: Managing a Wild Horse with a Rotten Rope' is added for those who are interested because I made some suggestions then as to how Kin Town might look at improving its economy. 11 years have passed since I made these suggestions.

01. The Tectonics of Reversion and Promoting Identification (ittaika)
02. Long-Term Development Planning - Early GOJ and Okinawa Initiatives
03. Reversion Decided: Official and Independent Initiatives
04. Reversion Achieved: Expectations versus Realities
05. Kakusa Zesei and the Promotion and Development of Okinawa
06. Case Study: The First Kin-son Promotion Plan
07. Remembering and Forgetting the Kakushin Okoku
08. The Second Okinawa Shinko Keizai Keikaku
09. Tachi no Shita kara: The Second Kin Town General Plan
10. The Reformist Nineties: Bringing Bases Back onto the Agenda
11. Heiwa, Kyosei, Jiritsu: Ota Masahide’s Base-free Cosmopolis Ideal
12. The Third Kin Town General Plan
13. Conclusion: Managing a Wild Horse with a Rotten Rope

 


 

The Post-Reversion Period

 

Jichiro Okinawa-ken Honbu. (1981). 'Okinawa no jichi ni kansuru hitotsu no shiten,' in 新崎盛暉〔ほか〕編、 沖縄自立への挑戦 (Okinawa jiritsu e no chousen. The Challenge of Autonomy for Okinawa). 東京:社会思想社、1982, pp. 232-236.

牧野浩隆、再考沖縄経済 (saikou Okinawa keizai. Reconsidering the Okinawan Economy) 那覇:沖縄タイムス社、1996.

島袋邦、我部正明編著、ポスト冷戦と沖縄 (posuto reisen to Okinawa. Okinawa in the Post-Cold War Era) 那覇:ひるぎ社、1993.

島袋邦編著、論集:沖縄の政治と社会 (Ronshuu: Okinawa no seiji to shakai. Essays on Okinawa’s Politics and Society). 那覇:ひるぎ社,1989.

Arasaki, M., Kawamitsu, S., Higa, R., and S. Harada., editors (1982). Okinawa jiritsu e no chosen. Tokyo: Shakai Shiso Sha.

Asahi Shimbun Nishibu Honsha, editor (1993). Okinawa kara no hokoku: fukkiyu 20 nen. Tokyo: Southern Press.

Hiroshi Kakazu, Sustainable Development of Small Island Economies. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1994.

Ito, Zennichi and Jiro Sakamoto., editors (1970). Okinawa no keizai kaihatsu. Tokyo: Choshinsho.

Kakazu, H. (1997). The Structure of Okinawa’s Economy: An Empirical Application of Equilibrium Analysis. Nagoya: Graduate School of International Development.

Matsukawa, Kunio. (1973). Fukki wa shita keredo: shiso keizai konran no Okinawa Naha: Okinawa Keizai Shimbun Sha.

Kuba, Masahiko. (1995). Sengo Okinawa keizai no kiseki. Naha: Hirugi Sha.

Shimabukuro, Kazuya. (1979). Fukkigo no Okinawa. Tokyo: Kyoiku Sha.

Shimabukuro, Kuni and Y. Higa., editors (1989). Chiiki kara no kokusai koryu: Ajia Taiheiyo jidai to Okinawa. Tokyo: Kyubun Shuppan.

Shimabukuro, Kuni and M. Gabe., editors (1993). Posuto reisen to Okinawa. Naha: Hirugi Sha.

Shimabukuro, Kuni, editor (1989). Ronshu: Okinawa no seiji to shakai. Naha: Hirugi Sha.

Umebayashi, Hiromichi (1994). Joho kokaiho de toraeta Okinawa no Beigun. Tokyo: Kobunkyu.

Yagi, Senni. (1989). Okinawa no Nihon fukkigo nijunen: 1972-1976. Urasoe: Okinawa Koronii.

Yagi, Senni. (1993). Okinawa no Nihon fukkigo nijunen: 1977-1980. Urasoe: Okinawa Koronii.

Kakazu, Hiroshi. (1983). 'Okinawa keizai jiritsu e no michi.' Shin Okinawa Bungaku 56.

Kakazu, Hiroshi. (1992). 'Ichi no higeki kara ichi no yui e.' Sekai June.

Nakachi, Hiroshi. (1992) 'Okinawa Kaihatsuchoron - 1.' Ryudai Law Review March.

Nakachi, Hiroshi. (1993) 'Okinawa Kaihatsuchoron - 2.' Ryudai Law Review March.

Higa, Teruyuki. (1994). 'The RDA - Its Impact on Okinawa.' Sangyo Sogo Kenkyusho March.

Higa, Teruyuki. (1993). 'The Cycle of Dependency: Okinawa’s Economy.' Journalists Global Islands Symposium, J-GIS ‘93 Organising Committee, Naha.

Miwa. N., Yamauchi, H., and D. Morita. (1988). Water and Survival in an Island Environment: The Challenge of Okinawa, Honolulu: Water Resources Research Centre.

Nishime, Junji. (1998). Sengo seiji o ikite: Nishime Junji nikki. Naha: Ryukyu Shimpo Sha.

Tomikawa, Moritake. (1987). Mabui utocharu Uchinanchu: ningen, bunka, fudo no shiten kara mita Okinawa keizai. Naha: Shinboshi Tosho Shuppan.

Teruya, Shuden. (1986). 'Gunyochiryo to kichi.' Shin Okinawa Bungaku 68.

Tomikawa, Moritake. (1988). 'Kichi to kanko.' Shin Okinawa Bungaku 77.

Horitsu Jiho Tokushu. (1982). 'Zokan: fukki 10 nen no Okinawa hakusho.' Horitsu Jiho April.

Okinawa-ken. (1982). The Second Promotion and Development Plan for Okinawa. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

 


 

大城常夫, 高良倉吉, 真栄城守定編著, 沖縄イニシアティブ : 沖縄発・知的戦略 (那覇: ひるぎ社 , 2000)

沖縄懇話会集、大前研一のユイマールビジョン (Oumae Kenichi no yuimaarubijion. Kenichi Omae’s Yuimaaru Vision). 那覇:ボーダーインク、1993.

来間泰男、沖縄経済の幻想と現実(Okinawa keizai no gensou to genjitsu. Reality and Fantasy in the Context of the Okinawan Economy). 東京:日本経済評論社、1998.

高里鈴代、沖縄の女たち:女性の人権と基地・軍隊 (Okinawa no onnatachi: josei no jinken to kichi・guntai. Okinawan Women: Military Bases, Armed Forces and Women’s Rights). 東京:明石書店、1996.

Ota Masahide, ‘At the Supreme Court of Japan as the Governor of Okinawa,’ in Ota Masahide, Essays on Okinawa Problems. Gushikawa: Yui Shuppan Co., 2000, pages 234-254.

大田県政八年を記録する会編 (Ota kensei hachinen o kirokusuru kai), 沖縄平和と自立への闘い:写真と語録で見る大田知事の二九九〇日 (Okinawa heiwa to jiritsu e no tatakai: shashin to goroku de miru Ota chiji no 2,990 nichi). Naha: Ota Kensei Hachinen o Kirokusuru Kai, 1999.

Ota, Masahide. (2000). Essays on Okinawa Problems. Gushikawa: Yui Shuppan.

高橋明善、沖縄の基地移設と地域振興 (Okinawa no kichi isetsu to chiiki shinkou. Military Base Relocation and Regional Promotion in Okinawa). 東京:日本経済評論社、2001.

Okinawa Times. (1998). Mini to ketsudan: kaijo heripooto mondai to Nago jumin tohyo. Naha: Okinawa Times Sha.

Purves, John., Selden, Mark., and Masamichi Inoue. (1997). 'Okinawa Citizens, US Bases, and the Dugong.' Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 4.

(Also available at numerous locations as Okinawa Citizens, US Bases and the Security of Asia)

Jichi Shimpo Tokushu. (1999). 'Kin-cho no kichi mondai to chiiki shinko no hoto o tenbosuru: Ginbaru kunrenjo no sekichi riyo nitsuite kuni no shien o yobo.' Gekkan Jichi Shimpo 168.

Jichi Shimpo Tokushu. (1997). '21 seiki ni muke yakudosuru Kin-cho: kokoro yutakana, akaruku sumiyoi, katsuryoku aru machi o mezashite.' Gekkan Jichi Shimpo 156.

Kurima, Yasuo (1997). 'Okinawa shakai to gunyochiryo,' in Okinawa no kichi mondai: Okinawa Kokusai Daigaku Kokai Koza - IV. Naha: Boda Inku.

Bechtel Corporation. (1998). Economic Development for Okinawa: A Program for Success. Bechtel Corporation.

Funabashi, Y. (1999) Alliance Adrift. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.

Gabe, Masaaki. (1996). Nichibei kankei no naka no Okinawa. Tokyo: Sanichi Shobo.

Kakazu, H. (2000). The Challenge for Okinawa: Thriving Locally in a Globalised Economy. Naha: Okinawa Development Finance Corporation.

US DoD. (1997). SBF Sea Based Facility: Functional Analysis and Concept of Operations - MCAS Futenma Relocation, FACD Vol. 1, Executive Report. US DoD.

US General Accounting Office. (1998). Overseas Presence: Issues Involved in Reducing the Impact of the US Military Presence on Okinawa, Report to the Honourable Duncan Hunter, House of Representatives, GAO/NSIAD-98-66.

NIRA. (1999). Daikibo tochi no atarashii riyo hoho ni kansuru kenkyu: Tomakomai higashibu daikibo kogyo kichi o tekiyo jirei nishite - chukan hokoku. Tokyo: NIRA.

Okinawa-ken. (1996). Atarashii zenkoku sogo kaihatsu keikaku to 21 seiki Okinawa no gurando dezain. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1996). Kichi henkan akushionpuroguramu [soan]. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1996). Kokusai toshi keisei koso [soan]: 21 seiki ni muketa shin Okinawa no gurandodezain. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1996). Kokusai toshi keisei koso: 21 seiki ni muketa Okinawa no gurando dezain. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1997). Kokusai toshi keisei kihon keikaku: 21 seiki Okinawa no gurando dezain no jitsugen ni mukete. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1997). Kokusai toshi keisei ni muketa aratana sangyo shinkosaku. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1996). 21 seiki no [bankoku shinryo] o mezashite - 21 seiki Okinawa no gurando dezain: chosa hokokusho gaiyo. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1995). Okinawa shinko kaihatsu no kadai to tenbo [soan]: kokusai toshi Okinawa o mezashite. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1996). Okinawa's Grand Design Toward the 21st Century: An Outline of the Cosmopolitan City Concept. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1996). The Cosmopolitan City Formation Concept: Grand Design for a New Okinawa Aiming at the 21st Century. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken. (1996). The Destruction of Cultural Properties Inside the US Military Bases. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Sogo Kenkyu Kaihatsu Kiko [NIRA]. (1997). Okinawa shinko chucho tenbo ni tsuite no kento chosa - chukan hokoku. Tokyo: NIRA. NIRA is a joint public-private think-tank established by the GOJ in 1974.

Government of Japan [GOJ], Kokudocho. (1995). 21 seiki no kokodo no gurando dezain: atarashii zenkoku sogo kaihatsu keikaku no kihonteki kangaekata. Tokyo: GOJ, Kokudocho.

Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Kaihatsubu, Kokusai Toshi Keisei Suishinshitsu. (1997). Jizoku kanona kaihatsu [Okinawa moderu]: chiiki kaihatsu kokusai waakushoppu 10/2/1997 no kiroku. Naha: Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Kaihatsubu, Kokusai Toshi Keisei Suishinshitsu.

Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Kaihatsubu, Kokusai Toshi Keisei Suishinshitsu. (1997). Chiiki kaihatsu Dessau kokusai kaigi. Naha: Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Kaihatsubu, Kokusai Toshi Keisei Suishinshitsu.

Okinawa-ken. (1998). Toward Implementation of the Cosmopolitan City Formation Concept. Naha: Okinawa-ken.

Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Choseishitsu. (1996) Okinawa shinko kaihatsu no kadai to tenbo: kokusai toshi Okinawa o mezashite. Naha: Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Choseishitsu.

Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Kaihatsubu. (1997). APEC shitei keisei kiso chosa hokokusho: jizoku kanona kaihatsu [Okinawa moderu] no gainen seiri - gaiyoban, Naha: Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Kaihatsubu.

Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Kaihatsubu. (1997). APEC shitei keisei kiso chosa hokokusho: jizoku kanona kaihatsu [Okinawa moderu] no gainen seiri. Okinawa-ken, Kikaku Kaihatsubu.

WWW resources:

Okinawa Prefecture - Planning and Coordination Section
http://www3.pref.okinawa.jp/site/view/cateview.jsp?cateid=29

(The Fourth Post-Reversion) Okinawa Promotion Plan (沖縄振興計画)
http://www8.cao.go.jp/okinawa/3/32.html#1

Okinawa Prefecture - Post-Base Land Use Planning Office
http://www.pref.okinawa.jp/kichiatochi/index.htm

Okinawa Prefecture - Military Base Affairs Section
http://www3.pref.okinawa.jp/site/view/cateview.jsp?cateid=14

21世紀の国土のグランドデザイン
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/21世紀の国土のグランドデザイン

Important Documents:

Japan-U.S. Joint Declaration on Security, April 17, 1996.

 


 

3-6. Okinawa in 2012

Appraising the state of Okinawa Prefecture 40 years after reversion it is possible to see a lot of positive change. Infrastructurally speaking, Okinawa is on a par with any other area of Japan (Okinawa’s remote areas still lag behind the larger islands in infrastructure) and Japanese investment continues to stimulate public works and construction. Economically, tourism is now the largest single source of revenue after government transfers and it certainly provides a lot of employment. On the negative side, the big resort hotels and transportation networks to and from Japan are not controlled by Okinawan companies. The large Japanese airline companies like JAL and ANA dominate. A lot of tourism-related jobs are semi-skilled and do not offer high wages or benefits packages. Okinawa certainly needs to look at ways of retaining more of the revenues from tourism in-prefecture. As for the military bases, not much change. As long as it continues to make sense to Tokyo and Washington to keep the system as is it will continue.

 


The Okinawa Initiative 2000

Three Okinawan scholars (one historian and two economists, respectively), Takara Kurayoshi, Oshiro Tsuneo & Maeshiro Morisada, proposed a philosophical initiative to relocate Okinawa away from what had become a rather restrictive historical context into a new one which takes into consideration the realities of its contemporary situation and future possibilities in a broader Asian context. What motivations might they have had in making such a proposal? How does the proposal stand in the context of contemporary Okinawa? Do they make valid points? Julia Yonetani answers these and many other questions in her lengthy "response" to the initiative.

Readings:

Oshiro Tsuneo, Takara Kurayoshi & Maeshiro Morisada (大城常夫, 高良倉吉, 真栄城守定)、Toward an “Okinawa Initiative” - A Possible Role for Okinawa in Asia Pacific, in 大城常夫, 高良倉吉, 真栄城守定、沖縄イニシアティブ: 沖縄発・知的戦略. 那覇:ひるぎ社、2000. Just the English text - Pages 176-192.

Reading: Julia Yonetani, ‘Future “Assets,” but at What Price? The Okinawa Initiative Debate,’ in Laura Hein & Mark Selden (ed.), Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2003. (Ryudai 094/HE - Okinawa)

http://japanfocus.org/_Julia_Yonetani-Does_the_US_Need_a_New_Marine_Air_Station_on_Okinawa__Voices_of_Resistance

The Senkaku/Daioyu Dispute

Suganuma, Unryu. (2000). Sovereign Rights and Territorial Space in Sino-Japanese Relations: Irredentism and the Daioyu/Senkaku Islands. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. An excellent piece of history research from all sides.

 


 

 



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